ESP8266 Multisensor Shield with Node-RED

In this project you’ll discover how integrate the ESP8266 Multisensor Shield for the Wemos D1 Mini board with Node-RED. The ESP8266 Multisensor Shield will establish an MQTT connection with a Raspberry Pi running Node-RED and Mosquitto MQTT broker.

Project Overview

The Multisensor shield consists of a temperature sensor, a motion sensor, an LDR, and a 3 pin socket where you can connect any output, like a relay module for example.

We’ll use the Mosquitto broker installed on the same Raspberry Pi running Node-RED. The broker is responsible for receiving all messages, filtering the messages, decide who is interested in them and publishing the messages to all subscribed clients. To learn more about MQTT, you can read: What is MQTT and How It Works.

The following figure shows an overview of what we’re going to do in this tutorial.

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  • The Node-RED application publishes messages (“on” or “off“) in the topic esp8266/output. The ESP8266 is subscribed to that topic. So, it receives the message with “on” or “off” to turn the output on or off.
  • The ESP8266 publishes temperature on the esp8266/temperature topic and the luminosity on the esp8266/ldr topic. The Node-RED application is subscribed to those topics. So, it receives temperature and luminosity readings that are displayed on a chart and gauge.
  • Node-RED is subscribed to the topic esp8266/motion. The ESP8266 publishes on that topic when motion is detected. When motion is detected the message “MOTION DETECTED!” is displayed for 10 seconds in the Node-RED Dashboard text widget.

Recommended reading: ESP32 MQTT – Publish and Subscribe with Arduino IDE

Prerequisites

If you like home automation and you want to learn more about Node-RED, Raspberry Pi, ESP8266 and Arduino, we recommend that you download our course: Build a Home Automation System with Node-RED, ESP8266 and Arduino.

Resources

You can find all the resources needed to build this project in the links below (or you can visit the GitHub project):

Schematic

You can build the multisensor shield on a PCB, or you can build the multisensor shield circuit on a breadboard.

Here’s a list of parts you need to build the circuit:

You can use the preceding links or go directly to MakerAdvisor.com/tools to find all the parts for your projects at the best price!

After gathering all the needed parts, assemble the circuit by following the next schematic diagram:

Here’s how the circuit looks like on a breadboard:

Alternatively, you can build a PCB for the WeMos D1 Mini (learn how to Build a Multisensor Shield for ESP8266):

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Here’s how the circuit looks like using the PCB shield with a 3D printed enclosure:

Preparing the Arduino IDE

We’ll program the ESP8266 using the Arduino IDE. In order to upload code to your ESP8266 using the Arduino IDE, you need to install the ESP8266 add-on (How to Install the ESP8266 Board in Arduino IDE). You’ll also need to install three additional libraries to run the code on the ESP8266.

Installing the PubSubClient Library

The PubSubClient library provides a client for doing simple publish/subscribe messaging with a server that supports MQTT (basically allows your ESP8266 to talk with Node-RED).

  1. Click here to download the PubSubClient library. You should have a .zip folder in your Downloads folder
  2. Unzip the .zip folder and you should get pubsubclient-master folder
  3. Rename your folder from pubsubclient-master to pubsubclient
  4. Move the pubsubclient folder to your Arduino IDE installation libraries folder

OneWire library

  1. Click here to download the OneWire library. You should have a .zip folder in your Downloads
  2. Unzip the .zip folder and you should get OneWire-master folder
  3. Rename your folder from OneWire-master to OneWire
  4. Move the OneWire folder to your Arduino IDE installation libraries folder

Dallas Temperature library

  1. Click here to download the DallasTemperature library. You should have a .zip folder in your Downloads
  2. Unzip the .zip folder and you should get Arduino-Temperature-Control-Library-master folder
  3. Rename your folder from Arduino-Temperature-Control-Library-master to DallasTemperature
  4. Move the DallasTemperature folder to your Arduino IDE installation libraries folder
  5. Finally, re-open your Arduino IDE

Uploading Code

Copy the following code to the Arduino IDE. The code is well commented on where you need to make changes. You need to edit the code with your own SSID, password and MQTT Broker IP Address (Raspberry Pi IP Address).

/*********
  Rui Santos
  Complete project details at https://randomnerdtutorials.com  
*********/

// Load libraries
#include <ESP8266WiFi.h>
#include <PubSubClient.h>
#include <OneWire.h>
#include <DallasTemperature.h>

// Replace with your network credentials
const char* ssid     = "REPLACE_WITH_YOUR_SSID";
const char* password = "REPLACE_WITH_YOUR_PASSWORD";

// Change the variable to your Raspberry Pi IP address, so it connects to your MQTT broker
const char* mqtt_server = "REPLACE_WITH_YOUR_MQTT_BROKER";
// MQTT Broker IP example
//const char* mqtt_server = "192.168.1.144";

// Initializes the espClient. You should change the espClient name if you have multiple ESPs running in your home automation system
WiFiClient espClient;
PubSubClient client(espClient);

// Variable to hold the temperature reading
String temperatureString = "";

// Set GPIOs for: output variable, status LED, PIR Motion Sensor, and LDR
const int output = 15;
const int statusLed = 12;
const int motionSensor = 5;
const int ldr = A0;
// Store the current output state
String outputState = "off";

// GPIO where the DS18B20 is connected to
const int oneWireBus = 4;          
// Setup a oneWire instance to communicate with any OneWire devices
OneWire oneWire(oneWireBus);
// Pass our oneWire reference to Dallas Temperature sensor 
DallasTemperature sensors(&oneWire);

// Timers - Auxiliary variables
unsigned long now = millis();
unsigned long lastMeasure = 0;
boolean startTimer = false;
unsigned long currentTime = millis();
unsigned long previousTime = 0; 

// Don't change the function below. 
// This function connects your ESP8266 to your router
void setup_wifi() {
  delay(10);
  // We start by connecting to a WiFi network
  Serial.println();
  Serial.print("Connecting to ");
  Serial.println(ssid);
  WiFi.begin(ssid, password);
  while (WiFi.status() != WL_CONNECTED) {
    delay(500);
    Serial.print(".");
  }
  Serial.println("");
  Serial.print("WiFi connected - ESP IP address: ");
  Serial.println(WiFi.localIP());
}

// This functions is executed when some device publishes a message to a topic that your ESP8266 is subscribed to
// Change the function below to add logic to your program, so when a device publishes a message to a topic that 
// your ESP8266 is subscribed you can actually do something
void callback(String topic, byte* message, unsigned int length) {
  Serial.print("Message arrived on topic: ");
  Serial.print(topic);
  Serial.print(". Message: ");
  String messageTemp;
  
  for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
    Serial.print((char)message[i]);
    messageTemp += (char)message[i];
  }
  Serial.println();

  // Feel free to add more if statements to control more GPIOs with MQTT
  // If a message is received on the topic esp8266/output, you check if the message is either on or off. 
  // Turns the output according to the message received
  if(topic=="esp8266/output"){
    Serial.print("Changing output to ");
    if(messageTemp == "on"){
      digitalWrite(output, LOW);
      Serial.print("on");
    }
    else if(messageTemp == "off"){
      digitalWrite(output, HIGH);
      Serial.print("off");
    }
  }
  Serial.println();
}

// This functions reconnects your ESP8266 to your MQTT broker
// Change the function below if you want to subscribe to more topics with your ESP8266 
void reconnect() {
  // Loop until we're reconnected
  while (!client.connected()) {
    Serial.print("Attempting MQTT connection...");
    // Create a random client ID
    String clientId = "ESP8266Client-";
    clientId += String(random(0xffff), HEX);
    // Attempt to connect
    if (client.connect(clientId.c_str())) {
      Serial.println("connected");  
      // Subscribe or resubscribe to a topic
      // You can subscribe to more topics (to control more outputs)
      client.subscribe("esp8266/output");  
    } else {
      Serial.print("failed, rc=");
      Serial.print(client.state());
      Serial.println(" try again in 5 seconds");
      // Wait 5 seconds before retrying
      delay(5000);
    }
  }
}

// Checks if motion was detected and the sensors are armed. Then, starts a timer.
void detectsMovement() {
  Serial.println("MOTION DETECTED!");
  client.publish("esp8266/motion", "MOTION DETECTED!");
  previousTime = millis();
  startTimer = true;
}

void setup() {
  // Start the DS18B20 sensor
  sensors.begin();

  // Serial port for debugging purposes
  Serial.begin(115200);

  // PIR Motion Sensor mode, then set interrupt function and RISING mode
  pinMode(motionSensor, INPUT_PULLUP);
  attachInterrupt(digitalPinToInterrupt(motionSensor), detectsMovement, RISING);
  
  // Initialize the output variable and the LED as OUTPUTs
  pinMode(output, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(statusLed, OUTPUT);
  digitalWrite(output, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(statusLed, LOW);
  
  setup_wifi();
  client.setServer(mqtt_server, 1883);
  client.setCallback(callback);
}

void loop() {
  if (!client.connected()) {
    reconnect();
  }
  client.loop();
  
  // Timer variable with current time
  now = millis();

  // Publishes new temperature and LDR readings every 30 seconds
  if (now - lastMeasure > 30000) {
    lastMeasure = now;
    sensors.requestTemperatures(); 
    // Temperature in Celsius degrees
    temperatureString = String(sensors.getTempCByIndex(0));
    // Uncomment the next line for temperature in Fahrenheit degrees
    //temperatureString = String(sensors.getTempFByIndex(0));
    // Publishes Temperature values
    client.publish("esp8266/temperature", temperatureString.c_str());
    Serial.println("Temperature published");
    
    // Publishes LDR values
    client.publish("esp8266/ldr", String(analogRead(ldr)).c_str());
    Serial.println("LDR values published");    
  }
  // After 10 seconds have passed since motion was detected, publishes a "No motion" message
  if ((now - previousTime > 10000) && startTimer) { 
    client.publish("esp8266/motion", "No motion");
    Serial.println("Motion stopped");
    startTimer = false;
  }
}

View raw code

This code is quite long to explain, so you can simply replace the following three variables with your details and the code will work straight away.

const char* ssid = "";
const char* password = "";
const char* mqtt_server = "";

If you want to learn how this code works, continue reading.

callback()

In the callback() function when a new message is received on the topic esp8266/output, you check if the message is either on or off to turn the output on or off accordingly.

if(topic=="esp8266/output"){
  Serial.print("Changing output to ");
  if(messageTemp == "on"){
    digitalWrite(output, LOW);
    Serial.print("on");
  }
  else if(messageTemp == "off"){
    digitalWrite(output, HIGH);
    Serial.print("off");
  }
}

Publishing temperature and LDR readings

This section of code publishes new temperature and LDR readings every 30 seconds. The temperatures readings are published on the esp8266/temperature topic. The luminosity readings are published on the esp8266/ldr topic.

if (now - lastMeasure > 30000) {
  lastMeasure = now;
  sensors.requestTemperatures(); 
  // Temperature in Celsius degrees
  temperatureString = String(sensors.getTempCByIndex(0));
  // Uncomment the next line for temperature in Fahrenheit degrees
  //temperatureString = String(sensors.getTempFByIndex(0));
  // Publishes Temperature values
  client.publish("esp8266/temperature", temperatureString.c_str());
  Serial.println("Temperature published");

  // Publishes LDR values
  client.publish("esp8266/ldr", String(analogRead(ldr)).c_str());
  Serial.println("LDR values published"); 
}

Note: the temperature is being published in Celsius degrees, but you can uncomment the following line for temperature in Fahrenheit degrees:

temperatureString = String(sensors.getTempFByIndex(0));

Motion detection

When motion is detected it calls the detectsMovement() function, publishes the message “MOTION DETECTED!” on the esp8266/motion topic, and starts a timer:

void detectsMovement() {
  Serial.println("MOTION DETECTED!");
  client.publish("esp8266/motion", "MOTION DETECTED!");
  previousTime = millis();
  startTimer = true;
}

If motion is not detected for more than 10 seconds, a new message is published in the esp8266/motion with the text “No motion”:

 // After 10 seconds have passed since motion was detected, publishes a "No motion" message
if ((now - previousTime > 10000) && startTimer) { 
  client.publish("esp8266/motion", "No motion");
  Serial.println("Motion stopped");
  startTimer = false;
}

Those are the main sections of code that you need to worry about. You can modify the messages, subscribe to more topics to control more outputs, or publish other sensor readings.

Testing the connection

Upload the code to your board. After uploading it, and with the Raspberry Pi running your Node-RED application and the Mosquitto broker, open the Arduino IDE serial monitor at a baud rate of 115200 and see what’s happening in real time.

This is helpful to check if the ESP8266 has established a successful connection to your router and with the Mosquitto broker.

Creating the Node-RED Flow

Before creating the flow, you need to have installed in your Raspberry Pi:

Importing the Node-RED flow

To import the provided Node-RED flow, go to the GitHub repository or click the figure below to see the raw file, and copy the code provided.

Next, in the Node-RED window, at the top right corner, select the menu, and go to Import  > Clipboard.

Then, paste the code provided and click Import.

Here’s the imported flow that controls the ESP8266 and displays the published sensor readings.

Node-RED UI

After making all the necessary changes, click the Deploy button to save all the changes.

Now, your Node-RED application is ready. To access Node-RED UI and see how your application looks, access any browser in your local network and type:

http://Your_RPi_IP_address:1880/ui

Your application should look as in the following figure.

When motion is detected, it prints the message “MOTION DETECTED!” in the PIR Status field:

Wrapping Up

That’s it for this project. We hope you’ve found this project useful and you’re able to integrate the Multisensor Shield with your own home automation system using Node-RED.

If you like this project, you may also like our other projects:

Thanks for reading.


Learn how to program and build projects with the ESP32 and ESP8266 using MicroPython firmware DOWNLOAD »

Learn how to program and build projects with the ESP32 and ESP8266 using MicroPython firmware DOWNLOAD »


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6 thoughts on “ESP8266 Multisensor Shield with Node-RED”

  1. I like you tutorials as I have gotten further ahead with your website as any others.
    However, with this project:
    a) the ldr readings are backward
    b) no matter which pir I use, and I have several including the one in the tutorial, I get erratic motion. It’s constantly sensing motion.

    I would appreciate some help here

    Tks

  2. Hi Sara,

    I cant find where to enter mqtt_username and mqtt_password. Could you help me with these, please?

    Thanks,

    Edgar

    ……….
    Attempting MQTT connection…failed, rc=5 try again in 5 seconds
    Attempting MQTT connection…failed, rc=5 try again in 5 seconds
    Attempting MQTT connection…failed, rc=5 try again in 5 seconds
    Attempting MQTT connection…failed, rc=5 try again in 5 seconds
    Attempting MQTT connection…failed, rc=5 try again in 5 seconds
    ………….

  3. Hi, When importing your Node Flow I’m missing the pallettes ui_switch, ui_text, ui_gauge and ui_chart. i.e. the blue ones in your picture. Do you know where i can find them.
    (i’m running Node-RED on an WIN10 machine)
    Regards Olov

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