ESP8266 0.96 inch OLED Display with Arduino IDE

This guide shows how to use the 0.96 inch SSD1306 OLED display with ESP8266 using Arduino IDE. We’ll show you how to write text, set different fonts, draw shapes and display bitmaps images.

ESP8266 Arduino OLED Display Image circuit

We also have a dedicated guide that shows how to display temperature and humidity readings using DHT sensor and ESP8266.

Introducing 0.96 inch OLED Display

The OLED display that we’ll use in this tutorial is the SSD1306 model: a monocolor, 0.96 inch display with 128×64 pixels as shown in the following figure.

0.96 inch OLED display with ESP32 ESP8266 Arduino

The OLED display doesn’t require backlight, which results in a very nice contrast in dark environments. Additionally, its pixels consume energy only when they are on, so the OLED display consumes less power when compared to other displays.

The model we’re using has four pins and communicates with any microcontroller using I2C communication protocol. There are models that come with an extra RESET pin or that communicate using SPI communication protocol.

OLED Display SSD1306 Pin Wiring

Because the OLED display uses I2C communication protocol, wiring is very simple. You can use the following table as a reference.

PinESP8266
Vin3.3V
GNDGND
SCLGPIO 5 (D1)
SDAGPIO 4 (D2)

Alternatively, you can follow the next schematic diagram to wire the ESP8266 to the OLED display.

ESP8266 Arduino OLED Display Circuit Schematic

In this example, we’re using I2C communication protocol. The most suitable pins for I2C communication in the ESP8266 are GPIO 5 (SCL) and GPIO 4 (SDA).

If you’re using an OLED display with SPI communication protocol, use the following GPIOs.

  • GPIO 14: CLK
  • GPIO 12: MISO
  • GPIO 13: MOSI
  • GPIO 15: CS

Read our ESP8266 Pinout Reference Guide to learn more about the ESP8266 GPIOs.

Installing SSD1306 OLED Library – ESP8266

There are several libraries available to control the OLED display with the ESP8266. In this tutorial we’ll use two Adafruit libraries: Adafruit_SSD1306 library and Adafruit_GFX library.

Follow the next steps to install those libraries.

1. Open your Arduino IDE and go to Sketch Include Library > Manage Libraries. The Library Manager should open.

2. Type “SSD1306” in the search box and install the SSD1306 library from Adafruit.

3. After installing the SSD1306 library from Adafruit, type “GFX” in the search box and install the library.

Installing GFX Library ESP8266 ESP32 Arduino

4. After installing the libraries, restart your Arduino IDE.

We’ll program the ESP8266 using Arduino IDE, so you must have the ESP8266 add-on installed in your Arduino IDE. If you haven’t, follow the next tutorial first:

Testing OLED Display with ESP8266

After wiring the OLED display to the ESP8266 and installing all required libraries, you can use one example from the library to see if everything is working properly.

In your Arduino IDE, go to File > Examples > Adafruit SSD1306 and select the example for the display you’re using.

Testing Adafruit SSD1306 Library example

The following code should load:

/*********
  Complete project details at https://randomnerdtutorials.com
  
  This is an example for our Monochrome OLEDs based on SSD1306 drivers. Pick one up today in the adafruit shop! ------> http://www.adafruit.com/category/63_98
  This example is for a 128x32 pixel display using I2C to communicate 3 pins are required to interface (two I2C and one reset).
  Adafruit invests time and resources providing this open source code, please support Adafruit and open-source hardware by purchasing products from Adafruit!
  Written by Limor Fried/Ladyada for Adafruit Industries, with contributions from the open source community. BSD license, check license.txt for more information All text above, and the splash screen below must be included in any redistribution. 
*********/

#include <SPI.h>
#include <Wire.h>
#include <Adafruit_GFX.h>
#include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h>

#define SCREEN_WIDTH 128 // OLED display width, in pixels
#define SCREEN_HEIGHT 64 // OLED display height, in pixels

// Declaration for an SSD1306 display connected to I2C (SDA, SCL pins)
#define OLED_RESET     -1 // Reset pin # (or -1 if sharing Arduino reset pin)
Adafruit_SSD1306 display(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, &Wire, OLED_RESET);

#define NUMFLAKES     10 // Number of snowflakes in the animation example

#define LOGO_HEIGHT   16
#define LOGO_WIDTH    16
static const unsigned char PROGMEM logo_bmp[] =
{ B00000000, B11000000,
  B00000001, B11000000,
  B00000001, B11000000,
  B00000011, B11100000,
  B11110011, B11100000,
  B11111110, B11111000,
  B01111110, B11111111,
  B00110011, B10011111,
  B00011111, B11111100,
  B00001101, B01110000,
  B00011011, B10100000,
  B00111111, B11100000,
  B00111111, B11110000,
  B01111100, B11110000,
  B01110000, B01110000,
  B00000000, B00110000 };

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(115200);

  // SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC = generate display voltage from 3.3V internally
  if(!display.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C)) { 
    Serial.println(F("SSD1306 allocation failed"));
    for(;;); // Don't proceed, loop forever
  }

  // Show initial display buffer contents on the screen --
  // the library initializes this with an Adafruit splash screen.
  display.display();
  delay(2000); // Pause for 2 seconds

  // Clear the buffer
  display.clearDisplay();

  // Draw a single pixel in white
  display.drawPixel(10, 10, WHITE);

  // Show the display buffer on the screen. You MUST call display() after
  // drawing commands to make them visible on screen!
  display.display();
  delay(2000);
  // display.display() is NOT necessary after every single drawing command,
  // unless that's what you want...rather, you can batch up a bunch of
  // drawing operations and then update the screen all at once by calling
  // display.display(). These examples demonstrate both approaches...

  testdrawline();      // Draw many lines

  testdrawrect();      // Draw rectangles (outlines)

  testfillrect();      // Draw rectangles (filled)

  testdrawcircle();    // Draw circles (outlines)

  testfillcircle();    // Draw circles (filled)

  testdrawroundrect(); // Draw rounded rectangles (outlines)

  testfillroundrect(); // Draw rounded rectangles (filled)

  testdrawtriangle();  // Draw triangles (outlines)

  testfilltriangle();  // Draw triangles (filled)

  testdrawchar();      // Draw characters of the default font

  testdrawstyles();    // Draw 'stylized' characters

  testscrolltext();    // Draw scrolling text

  testdrawbitmap();    // Draw a small bitmap image

  // Invert and restore display, pausing in-between
  display.invertDisplay(true);
  delay(1000);
  display.invertDisplay(false);
  delay(1000);

  testanimate(logo_bmp, LOGO_WIDTH, LOGO_HEIGHT); // Animate bitmaps
}

void loop() {
}

void testdrawline() {
  int16_t i;

  display.clearDisplay(); // Clear display buffer

  for(i=0; i<display.width(); i+=4) {
    display.drawLine(0, 0, i, display.height()-1, WHITE);
    display.display(); // Update screen with each newly-drawn line
    delay(1);
  }
  for(i=0; i<display.height(); i+=4) {
    display.drawLine(0, 0, display.width()-1, i, WHITE);
    display.display();
    delay(1);
  }
  delay(250);

  display.clearDisplay();

  for(i=0; i<display.width(); i+=4) {
    display.drawLine(0, display.height()-1, i, 0, WHITE);
    display.display();
    delay(1);
  }
  for(i=display.height()-1; i>=0; i-=4) {
    display.drawLine(0, display.height()-1, display.width()-1, i, WHITE);
    display.display();
    delay(1);
  }
  delay(250);

  display.clearDisplay();

  for(i=display.width()-1; i>=0; i-=4) {
    display.drawLine(display.width()-1, display.height()-1, i, 0, WHITE);
    display.display();
    delay(1);
  }
  for(i=display.height()-1; i>=0; i-=4) {
    display.drawLine(display.width()-1, display.height()-1, 0, i, WHITE);
    display.display();
    delay(1);
  }
  delay(250);

  display.clearDisplay();

  for(i=0; i<display.height(); i+=4) {
    display.drawLine(display.width()-1, 0, 0, i, WHITE);
    display.display();
    delay(1);
  }
  for(i=0; i<display.width(); i+=4) {
    display.drawLine(display.width()-1, 0, i, display.height()-1, WHITE);
    display.display();
    delay(1);
  }

  delay(2000); // Pause for 2 seconds
}

void testdrawrect(void) {
  display.clearDisplay();

  for(int16_t i=0; i<display.height()/2; i+=2) {
    display.drawRect(i, i, display.width()-2*i, display.height()-2*i, WHITE);
    display.display(); // Update screen with each newly-drawn rectangle
    delay(1);
  }

  delay(2000);
}

void testfillrect(void) {
  display.clearDisplay();

  for(int16_t i=0; i<display.height()/2; i+=3) {
    // The INVERSE color is used so rectangles alternate white/black
    display.fillRect(i, i, display.width()-i*2, display.height()-i*2, INVERSE);
    display.display(); // Update screen with each newly-drawn rectangle
    delay(1);
  }

  delay(2000);
}

void testdrawcircle(void) {
  display.clearDisplay();

  for(int16_t i=0; i<max(display.width(),display.height())/2; i+=2) {
    display.drawCircle(display.width()/2, display.height()/2, i, WHITE);
    display.display();
    delay(1);
  }

  delay(2000);
}

void testfillcircle(void) {
  display.clearDisplay();

  for(int16_t i=max(display.width(),display.height())/2; i>0; i-=3) {
    // The INVERSE color is used so circles alternate white/black
    display.fillCircle(display.width() / 2, display.height() / 2, i, INVERSE);
    display.display(); // Update screen with each newly-drawn circle
    delay(1);
  }

  delay(2000);
}

void testdrawroundrect(void) {
  display.clearDisplay();

  for(int16_t i=0; i<display.height()/2-2; i+=2) {
    display.drawRoundRect(i, i, display.width()-2*i, display.height()-2*i,
      display.height()/4, WHITE);
    display.display();
    delay(1);
  }

  delay(2000);
}

void testfillroundrect(void) {
  display.clearDisplay();

  for(int16_t i=0; i<display.height()/2-2; i+=2) {
    // The INVERSE color is used so round-rects alternate white/black
    display.fillRoundRect(i, i, display.width()-2*i, display.height()-2*i,
      display.height()/4, INVERSE);
    display.display();
    delay(1);
  }

  delay(2000);
}

void testdrawtriangle(void) {
  display.clearDisplay();

  for(int16_t i=0; i<max(display.width(),display.height())/2; i+=5) {
    display.drawTriangle(
      display.width()/2  , display.height()/2-i,
      display.width()/2-i, display.height()/2+i,
      display.width()/2+i, display.height()/2+i, WHITE);
    display.display();
    delay(1);
  }

  delay(2000);
}

void testfilltriangle(void) {
  display.clearDisplay();

  for(int16_t i=max(display.width(),display.height())/2; i>0; i-=5) {
    // The INVERSE color is used so triangles alternate white/black
    display.fillTriangle(
      display.width()/2  , display.height()/2-i,
      display.width()/2-i, display.height()/2+i,
      display.width()/2+i, display.height()/2+i, INVERSE);
    display.display();
    delay(1);
  }

  delay(2000);
}

void testdrawchar(void) {
  display.clearDisplay();

  display.setTextSize(1);      // Normal 1:1 pixel scale
  display.setTextColor(WHITE); // Draw white text
  display.setCursor(0, 0);     // Start at top-left corner
  display.cp437(true);         // Use full 256 char 'Code Page 437' font

  // Not all the characters will fit on the display. This is normal.
  // Library will draw what it can and the rest will be clipped.
  for(int16_t i=0; i<256; i++) {
    if(i == '\n') display.write(' ');
    else          display.write(i);
  }

  display.display();
  delay(2000);
}

void testdrawstyles(void) {
  display.clearDisplay();

  display.setTextSize(1);             // Normal 1:1 pixel scale
  display.setTextColor(WHITE);        // Draw white text
  display.setCursor(0,0);             // Start at top-left corner
  display.println(F("Hello, world!"));

  display.setTextColor(BLACK, WHITE); // Draw 'inverse' text
  display.println(3.141592);

  display.setTextSize(2);             // Draw 2X-scale text
  display.setTextColor(WHITE);
  display.print(F("0x")); display.println(0xDEADBEEF, HEX);

  display.display();
  delay(2000);
}

void testscrolltext(void) {
  display.clearDisplay();

  display.setTextSize(2); // Draw 2X-scale text
  display.setTextColor(WHITE);
  display.setCursor(10, 0);
  display.println(F("scroll"));
  display.display();      // Show initial text
  delay(100);

  // Scroll in various directions, pausing in-between:
  display.startscrollright(0x00, 0x0F);
  delay(2000);
  display.stopscroll();
  delay(1000);
  display.startscrollleft(0x00, 0x0F);
  delay(2000);
  display.stopscroll();
  delay(1000);
  display.startscrolldiagright(0x00, 0x07);
  delay(2000);
  display.startscrolldiagleft(0x00, 0x07);
  delay(2000);
  display.stopscroll();
  delay(1000);
}

void testdrawbitmap(void) {
  display.clearDisplay();

  display.drawBitmap(
    (display.width()  - LOGO_WIDTH ) / 2,
    (display.height() - LOGO_HEIGHT) / 2,
    logo_bmp, LOGO_WIDTH, LOGO_HEIGHT, 1);
  display.display();
  delay(1000);
}

#define XPOS   0 // Indexes into the 'icons' array in function below
#define YPOS   1
#define DELTAY 2

void testanimate(const uint8_t *bitmap, uint8_t w, uint8_t h) {
  int8_t f, icons[NUMFLAKES][3];

  // Initialize 'snowflake' positions
  for(f=0; f< NUMFLAKES; f++) {
    icons[f][XPOS]   = random(1 - LOGO_WIDTH, display.width());
    icons[f][YPOS]   = -LOGO_HEIGHT;
    icons[f][DELTAY] = random(1, 6);
    Serial.print(F("x: "));
    Serial.print(icons[f][XPOS], DEC);
    Serial.print(F(" y: "));
    Serial.print(icons[f][YPOS], DEC);
    Serial.print(F(" dy: "));
    Serial.println(icons[f][DELTAY], DEC);
  }

  for(;;) { // Loop forever...
    display.clearDisplay(); // Clear the display buffer

    // Draw each snowflake:
    for(f=0; f< NUMFLAKES; f++) {
      display.drawBitmap(icons[f][XPOS], icons[f][YPOS], bitmap, w, h, WHITE);
    }

    display.display(); // Show the display buffer on the screen
    delay(200);        // Pause for 1/10 second

    // Then update coordinates of each flake...
    for(f=0; f< NUMFLAKES; f++) {
      icons[f][YPOS] += icons[f][DELTAY];
      // If snowflake is off the bottom of the screen...
      if (icons[f][YPOS] >= display.height()) {
        // Reinitialize to a random position, just off the top
        icons[f][XPOS]   = random(1 - LOGO_WIDTH, display.width());
        icons[f][YPOS]   = -LOGO_HEIGHT;
        icons[f][DELTAY] = random(1, 6);
      }
    }
  }
}

View raw code

If your OLED doesn’t have a RESET pin, you should set the OLED_RESET variable to -1 as shown below:

#define OLED_RESET -1 // Reset pin # (or -1 if sharing Arduino reset pin)

Note: if your OLED has a RESET pin, you should connect it to a different GPIO than GPIO 4, because that pin is being used for I2C communication in the EPS8266.

Upload the code to your ESP8266 board. Don’t forget to select the right board and COM port in the Tools menu.

You should get a series of different animations in the OLED as shown in the following short video.


If your OLED display is not showing anything:

  • Check that the OLED display is properly wired to the ESP8266
  • Double-check the OLED display I2C address: with the OLED connected to the ESP8266, upload this code and check the I2C address in the Serial Monitor

You should change the OLED address in the following line, if necessary. In our case, the address is 0x3C.

if(!display.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C)) { 

Write Text – OLED Display

The Adafruit library for the OLED display comes with several functions to write text. In this section, you’ll learn how to write and scroll text using the library functions.

“Hello, world!” OLED Display

The following sketch displays Hello, world! message in the OLED display.

/*********
  Rui Santos
  Complete project details at https://randomnerdtutorials.com  
*********/

#include <Wire.h>
#include <Adafruit_GFX.h>
#include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h>

#define SCREEN_WIDTH 128 // OLED display width, in pixels
#define SCREEN_HEIGHT 64 // OLED display height, in pixels

// Declaration for an SSD1306 display connected to I2C (SDA, SCL pins)
Adafruit_SSD1306 display(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, &Wire, -1);

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(115200);

  if(!display.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C)) { // Address 0x3D for 128x64
    Serial.println(F("SSD1306 allocation failed"));
    for(;;);
  }
  delay(2000);
  display.clearDisplay();

  display.setTextSize(1);
  display.setTextColor(WHITE);
  display.setCursor(0, 10);
  // Display static text
  display.println("Hello, world!");
  display.display(); 
}

void loop() {
  
}

View raw code

After uploading the code, this is what you’ll get in your OLED:

ESP32 ESP8266 Arduino OLED Display font type

Let’s take a quick look on how the code works.

Importing libraries

First, you need to import the necessary libraries. The Wire library to use I2C and the Adafruit libraries to write to the display: Adafruit_GFX and Adafruit_SSD1306.

#include <Wire.h>
#include <Adafruit_GFX.h>
#include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h>

Initialize the OLED display

Then, you define your OLED width and height. In this example, we’re using a 128×64 OLED display. If you’re using other sizes, you can change that in the SCREEN_WIDTH, and SCREEN_HEIGHT variables.

#define SCREEN_WIDTH 128 // OLED display width, in pixels
#define SCREEN_HEIGHT 64 // OLED display height, in pixels

Then, initialize a display object with the width and height defined earlier with I2C communication protocol (&Wire).

Adafruit_SSD1306 display(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, &Wire, -1);

The (-1) parameter means that your OLED display doesn’t have a RESET pin. If your OLED display does have a RESET pin, it should be connected to a GPIO. In that case, you should pass the GPIO number as a parameter.

In the setup(), initialize the Serial Monitor at a baud raute of 115200 for debugging purposes.

Serial.begin(115200);

Initialize the OLED display with the begin() method as follows:

if(!display.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C)) { 
  Serial.println("SSD1306 allocation failed");
  for(;;); // Don't proceed, loop forever
}

This snippet also prints a message on the Serial Monitor, in case we’re not able to connect to the display.

Serial.println("SSD1306 allocation failed");

In case you’re using a different OLED display, you may need to change the OLED address. In our case, the address is 0x3C.

if(!display.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C)) { 

If this address doesn’t work, you can run an I2C scanner sketch to find your OLED address. You can find the I2C scanner sketch here.

After initializing the display, add a two second delay, so that the OLED has enough time to initialize before writing text:

delay(2000);

Clear display, set font size, color and write text

After initializing the display, clear the display buffer with the clearDisplay() method:

display.clearDisplay();

Before writing text, you need to set the text size, color and where the text will be displayed in the OLED.

Set the font size using the setTextSize() method:

display.setTextSize(1);             

Set the font color with the setTextColor() method:

display.setTextColor(WHITE);        

WHITE sets white font and black background.

Define the position where the text starts using the setCursor(x,y) method. In this case, we’re setting the text to start at the (0,0) coordinates – at the top left corner.

display.setCursor(0,0);             

Finally, you can send the text to the display using the println() method, as follows:

display.println("Hello, world!");

Then, you need to call the display() method to actually display the text on the screen.

display.display();

Scrolling Text

The Adafruit OLED library provides useful methods to easily scroll text.

  • startscrollright(0x00, 0x0F): scroll text from left to right
  • startscrollleft(0x00, 0x0F): scroll text from right to left
  • startscrolldiagright(0x00, 0x07): scroll text from left bottom corner to right upper corner
  • startscrolldiagleft(0x00, 0x07): scroll text from right bottom corner to left upper corner

The following sketch implements those methods.

/*********
  Rui Santos
  Complete project details at https://randomnerdtutorials.com  
*********/

#include <Wire.h>
#include <Adafruit_GFX.h>
#include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h>

#define SCREEN_WIDTH 128 // OLED display width, in pixels
#define SCREEN_HEIGHT 64 // OLED display height, in pixels

// Declaration for an SSD1306 display connected to I2C (SDA, SCL pins)
Adafruit_SSD1306 display(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, &Wire, -1);

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(115200);

  if(!display.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C)) { // Address 0x3D for 128x64
    Serial.println(F("SSD1306 allocation failed"));
    for(;;);
  }
  delay(2000);
  display.clearDisplay();

  display.setTextSize(1);
  display.setTextColor(WHITE);
  display.setCursor(0, 0);
  // Display static text
  display.println("Scrolling Hello");
  display.display(); 
  delay(100);
 
}

void loop() {
  // Scroll in various directions, pausing in-between:
  display.startscrollright(0x00, 0x0F);
  delay(2000);
  display.stopscroll();
  delay(1000);
  display.startscrollleft(0x00, 0x0F);
  delay(2000);
  display.stopscroll();
  delay(1000);
  display.startscrolldiagright(0x00, 0x07);
  delay(2000);
  display.startscrolldiagleft(0x00, 0x07);
  delay(2000);
  display.stopscroll();
  delay(1000);
}

View raw code

The text scrolls as shown in the following short video.


Using Other Fonts – OLED Display

The Adafruit GFX library allows us to use some alternate fonts besides the built-in fonts. It allows you to chose between Serif, Sans, and Mono. Each font is available in bold, italic and in different sizes.

The sizes are set by the actual font. So, the setTextSize() method doesn’t work with these fonts. The fonts are available in 9, 12, 18 and 24 point sizes and also contain 7-bit characters (ASCII codes) (described as 7b in the font name).

You can chose from the next selection of fonts:

FreeMono12pt7b.h		FreeSansBoldOblique12pt7b.h
FreeMono18pt7b.h		FreeSansBoldOblique18pt7b.h
FreeMono24pt7b.h		FreeSansBoldOblique24pt7b.h
FreeMono9pt7b.h			FreeSansBoldOblique9pt7b.h
FreeMonoBold12pt7b.h		FreeSansOblique12pt7b.h
FreeMonoBold18pt7b.h		FreeSansOblique18pt7b.h
FreeMonoBold24pt7b.h		FreeSansOblique24pt7b.h
FreeMonoBold9pt7b.h		FreeSansOblique9pt7b.h
FreeMonoBoldOblique12pt7b.h	FreeSerif12pt7b.h
FreeMonoBoldOblique18pt7b.h	FreeSerif18pt7b.h
FreeMonoBoldOblique24pt7b.h	FreeSerif24pt7b.h
FreeMonoBoldOblique9pt7b.h	FreeSerif9pt7b.h
FreeMonoOblique12pt7b.h		FreeSerifBold12pt7b.h
FreeMonoOblique18pt7b.h		FreeSerifBold18pt7b.h
FreeMonoOblique24pt7b.h		FreeSerifBold24pt7b.h
FreeMonoOblique9pt7b.h		FreeSerifBold9pt7b.h
FreeSans12pt7b.h		FreeSerifBoldItalic12pt7b.h
FreeSans18pt7b.h		FreeSerifBoldItalic18pt7b.h
FreeSans24pt7b.h		FreeSerifBoldItalic24pt7b.h
FreeSans9pt7b.h			FreeSerifBoldItalic9pt7b.h
FreeSansBold12pt7b.h		FreeSerifItalic12pt7b.h
FreeSansBold18pt7b.h		FreeSerifItalic18pt7b.h
FreeSansBold24pt7b.h		FreeSerifItalic24pt7b.h
FreeSansBold9pt7b.h		FreeSerifItalic9pt7b.h

The fonts that work better with the OLED display are the 9 and 12 points size.

To use one of those fonts, first you need to include it in your sketch, for example:

#include <Fonts/FreeSerif12pt7b.h>

Next, you just need to use the setFont() method and pass as argument, the specified font:

display.setFont(&FreeSerif12pt7b);

After specifying the font, all methods to write text will use that font. To get back to use the original font, you just need to call the setFont() method with no arguments:

display.setFont();

Upload the next sketch to your board:

/*********
  Rui Santos
  Complete project details at https://randomnerdtutorials.com  
*********/

#include <Wire.h>
#include <Adafruit_GFX.h>
#include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h>
#include <Fonts/FreeSerif9pt7b.h>

#define SCREEN_WIDTH 128 // OLED display width, in pixels
#define SCREEN_HEIGHT 64 // OLED display height, in pixels

// Declaration for an SSD1306 display connected to I2C (SDA, SCL pins)
Adafruit_SSD1306 display(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, &Wire, -1);

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(115200);

  if(!display.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C)) { 
    Serial.println("SSD1306 allocation failed");
    for(;;);
  }
  delay(2000);

  display.setFont(&FreeSerif9pt7b);
  display.clearDisplay();
  display.setTextSize(1);             
  display.setTextColor(WHITE);        
  display.setCursor(0,20);             
  display.println("Hello, world!");
  display.display();
  delay(2000); 
}
void loop() {
  
}

View raw code

Now, your display prints the “Hello, world!” message in FreeSerif font.

ESP32 ESP8266 Arduino OLED Display font type

Draw Shapes in the OLED Display

The Adafruit OLED library provides useful methods to draw pixels, lines and shapes. Let’s take a quick look at those methods.

Draw a pixel

ESP32 ESP8266 Arduino OLED Display Pixel Dot

To draw a pixel in the OLED display, you can use the drawPixel(x, y, color) method that accepts as arguments the x and y coordinates where the pixel appears, and color. For example:

display.drawPixel(64, 32, WHITE);

Draw a line

ESP32 ESP8266 Arduino OLED Display Line

Use the drawLine(x1, y1, x2, y2, color) method to create a line. The (x1, y1) coordinates indicate the start of the line, and the (x2, y2) coordinates indicates where the line ends. For example:

display.drawLine(0, 0, 127, 20, WHITE);

Draw a rectangle

ESP32 ESP8266 Arduino OLED Display Rectangle

The drawRect(x, y, width, height, color) provides an easy way to draw a rectangle. The (x, y) coordinates indicate the top left corner of the rectangle. Then, you need to specify the width, height and color:

display.drawRect(10, 10, 50, 30, WHITE);

You can use the fillRect(x, y, width, height, color) to draw a filled rectangle. This method accepts the same arguments as drawRect().

ESP32 ESP8266 Arduino OLED Display Filled

The library also provides methods to displays rectangles with round corners: drawRoundRect() and fillRoundRect(). These methods accepts the same arguments as previous methods plus the radius of the corner. For example:

display.drawRoundRect(10, 10, 30, 50, 2, WHITE);
ESP32 ESP8266 Arduino OLED Display Rectangle Vertical

Or a filled round rectangle:

display.fillRoundRect(10, 10, 30, 50, 2, WHITE);
ESP32 ESP8266 Arduino OLED Display Rectangle Vertical Filled

Draw a circle

ESP32 ESP8266 Arduino OLED Display Circle

To draw a circle use the drawCircle(x, y, radius, color) method. The (x,y) coordinates indicate the center of the circle. You should also pass the radius as an argument. For example:

display.drawCircle(64, 32, 10, WHITE);

In the same way, to build a filled circle, use the fillCircle() method with the same arguments:

display.fillCircle(64, 32, 10, WHITE);
ESP32 ESP8266 Arduino OLED Display Circle Filled

Draw a triangle

ESP32 ESP8266 Arduino OLED Display Triangle

Use the the drawTriangle(x1, y1, x2, y2, x3, y3, color) method to build a triangle. This method accepts as arguments the coordinates of each corner and the color.

display.drawTriangle(10, 10, 55, 20, 5, 40, WHITE);

Use the fillTriangle() method to draw a filled triangle.

display.fillTriangle(10, 10, 55, 20, 5, 40, WHITE);
ESP32 ESP8266 Arduino OLED Display Triangle Filled

Invert

The library provides an additional method that you can use with shapes or text: the invertDisplay() method. Pass true as argument to invert the colors of the screen or false to get back to the original colors.

If you call the following command after defining the triangle:

display.invertDisplay(true);

You’ll get an inverted triangle as follows:

ESP32 ESP8266 Arduino OLED Display Triangle Background filled

Code – Draw Shapes

Upload the following sketch that implements each snippet of code we’ve covered previously and goes through all the shapes.

/*********
  Rui Santos
  Complete project details at https://randomnerdtutorials.com  
*********/

#include <Wire.h>
#include <Adafruit_GFX.h>
#include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h>

#define SCREEN_WIDTH 128
#define SCREEN_HEIGHT 64

// Declaration for an SSD1306 display connected to I2C (SDA, SCL pins)
Adafruit_SSD1306 display(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, &Wire, -1);

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(115200);

  if(!display.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C)) {
    Serial.println(F("SSD1306 allocation failed"));
    for(;;);
  }
  delay(2000); // Pause for 2 seconds

  // Clear the buffer
  display.clearDisplay();

  // Draw a single pixel in white
  display.drawPixel(64, 32, WHITE);
  display.display();
  delay(3000);

  // Draw line
  display.clearDisplay();
  display.drawLine(0, 0, 127, 20, WHITE);
  display.display();
  delay(3000);
  
  // Draw rectangle
  display.clearDisplay();
  display.drawRect(30, 10, 50, 30, WHITE);
  display.display();
  delay(3000);
  // Fill rectangle
  display.fillRect(30, 10, 50, 30, WHITE);
  display.display();
  delay(3000);

  // Draw round rectangle
  display.clearDisplay();
  display.drawRoundRect(10, 10, 30, 50, 2, WHITE);
  display.display();
  delay(3000);
  // Fill round rectangle
  display.clearDisplay();
  display.fillRoundRect(10, 10, 30, 50, 2, WHITE);
  display.display();
  delay(3000);
  
  // Draw circle
  display.clearDisplay();
  display.drawCircle(64, 32, 10, WHITE);
  display.display();
  delay(3000);
  // Fill circle
  display.fillCircle(64, 32, 10, WHITE);
  display.display();
  delay(3000);
  
  // Draw triangle
  display.clearDisplay();
  display.drawTriangle(10, 10, 55, 20, 5, 40, WHITE);
  display.display();
  delay(3000);
  // Fill triangle
  display.fillTriangle(10, 10, 55, 20, 5, 40, WHITE);
  display.display();
  delay(3000);

  // Invert and restore display, pausing in-between
  display.invertDisplay(true);
  delay(3000);
  display.invertDisplay(false);
  delay(3000);
}

void loop() {
  
}

View raw code


Display Bitmap Images in the OLED

You can display 128×64 bitmap monocolor images on the OLED display.

First, use an imaging program to resize a photo or picture and save it as monologue bitmap. If you’re on a Windows PC, you can use Paint.

Display Bitmap Images OLED convert image

Then, use a Image to C Array converter to convert the image into an array. I’ve used LCD Image Converter.

Run the program and start with a new image. Go to Image > Import and select the bitmap image you’ve created earlier.

Display Bitmap Images OLED

Go to Options > Conversion and in the Prepare tab, select the following options:

  • Type: Monochrome, Threshold Dither
  • Main Scan Direction: Top to Bottom
  • Line Scan Direction: Forward
Display Bitmap Images OLED convert image

Go to the Image tab and select the following options:

  • Split to rows
  • Block size: 8 bit
  • Byte order: Little-Endian
Display Bitmap Images OLED convert image export

Then, click OK. Finally, in the main menu, go to File > Convert. A new file with .c extension should be saved. That file contains the C array for the image. Open that file with a text editor, and copy the array.

In our case, this is the array that we get:

static const uint8_t image_data_Saraarray[1024] = {
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0a, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x14, 0x9e, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x36, 0x3f, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x6d, 0xff, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0xfb, 0xff, 0x80, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x03, 0xd7, 0xff, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x07, 0xef, 0xff, 0x80, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xdf, 0xff, 0x90, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xbf, 0xff, 0xd0, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x1d, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xd0, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x01, 0x1b, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x02, 0xa7, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x0b, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x0f, 0x07, 0xff, 0xf8, 0xf8, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x0e, 0x01, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x38, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x1c, 0x46, 0xff, 0xb1, 0x18, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x3f, 0x97, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x7a, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x01, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x01, 0xbf, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x81, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0xbf, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x81, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0xff, 0xfd, 0x83, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0xbf, 0xff, 0xfe, 0xff, 0xfd, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfb, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xdc, 0xff, 0xfa, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xd8, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xd0, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x90, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x02, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xb0, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xf5, 0xff, 0xd7, 0xf8, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xb0, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x5f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xa0, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xfb, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xfd, 0xff, 0xdf, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xbf, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x87, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x43, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x60, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x73, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x7b, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfd, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x33, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfd, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x00, 0x27, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x60, 0x00, 0x00, 0x67, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1b, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfd, 0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0xf3, 0xff, 0xc4, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0b, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0xfc, 0xff, 0x8c, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7f, 0x3c, 0x3c, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xc0, 0x7c, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff
};

View raw code

Copy your array to the sketch. Then, to display the array, use the drawBitmap() method that accepts the following arguments (x, y, image array, image width, image height, rotation). The (x, y) coordinates define where the image starts to be displayed.

Copy the code below to display your bitmap image in the OLED.

/*********
  Rui Santos
  Complete project details at https://randomnerdtutorials.com  
*********/

#include <Wire.h>
#include <Adafruit_GFX.h>
#include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h>

#define SCREEN_WIDTH 128
#define SCREEN_HEIGHT 64

Adafruit_SSD1306 display(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, &Wire, -1);

static const uint8_t image_data_Saraarray[1024] = {
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0a, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x14, 0x9e, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x36, 0x3f, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x6d, 0xff, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0xfb, 0xff, 0x80, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x03, 0xd7, 0xff, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x07, 0xef, 0xff, 0x80, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xdf, 0xff, 0x90, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xbf, 0xff, 0xd0, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x1d, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xd0, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x01, 0x1b, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x02, 0xa7, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x0b, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x0f, 0x07, 0xff, 0xf8, 0xf8, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x0e, 0x01, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x38, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x1c, 0x46, 0xff, 0xb1, 0x18, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x3f, 0x97, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x7a, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x01, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x01, 0xbf, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x81, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0xbf, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x81, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0xff, 0xfd, 0x83, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0xbf, 0xff, 0xfe, 0xff, 0xfd, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfb, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xdc, 0xff, 0xfa, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xd8, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xd0, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x90, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x02, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xb0, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xf5, 0xff, 0xd7, 0xf8, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xb0, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x5f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xa0, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xfb, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xfd, 0xff, 0xdf, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xbf, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x87, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x43, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x60, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x73, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x7b, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfd, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x33, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfd, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x00, 0x27, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x60, 0x00, 0x00, 0x67, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1b, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfd, 0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0xf3, 0xff, 0xc4, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0b, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0xfc, 0xff, 0x8c, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7f, 0x3c, 0x3c, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xc0, 0x7c, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 
    0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff
};
 
void setup() {
  Serial.begin(115200);
 
  if(!display.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C)) {
    Serial.println(F("SSD1306 allocation failed"));
    for(;;);
  }
  delay(2000); // Pause for 2 seconds
 
  // Clear the buffer.
  display.clearDisplay();
  
  // Draw bitmap on the screen
  display.drawBitmap(0, 0, image_data_Saraarray, 128, 64, 1);
  display.display();
}
 
void loop() {
  
}

View raw code

After uploading the code, this is what we get on the display.

ESP32 ESP8266 Arduino OLED Display Image

Troubleshooting

If you get the “SSD1306 allocation failed” error or if the OLED is not displaying anything in the screen, it can be one of the following issues:

Wrong I2C address

The I2C address for the OLED display we are using is 0x3C. However, yours may be different. So, make sure you check your display I2C address using an I2C scanner sketch.

SDA and SCL not connected properly

Please make sure that you have the SDA and SCL pins of the OLED display wired correctly. In case of the ESP8266, connect SDA pin to GPIO 4 (D2) and SCL pin to GPIO 5 (D1).

Wrapping Up

We hope you’ve found this guide about the OLED display with EPS8266 useful. Now, you can integrate the OLED display in your own projects. Proceed to the next tutorial to learn how to display sensor readings on the OLED display:

If you like ESP8266, you’ll certainly like our ESP8266 resources:

Some of our most popular projects with ESP8266:

Thanks for reading.


Learn how to program and build projects with the ESP32 and ESP8266 using MicroPython firmware DOWNLOAD »

Learn how to program and build projects with the ESP32 and ESP8266 using MicroPython firmware DOWNLOAD »


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24 thoughts on “ESP8266 0.96 inch OLED Display with Arduino IDE”

  1. Thats great. I actually need a new temp/humidity sensor and it would be nice to push the readings up to my server to read from my web app. I had heard you can write code to a ESP8266 without having to use AT commands, but haven’t looked it up yet. NodeMCU looks awesome. One question though? Where is the code to upload to the ESP8266? I don’t see it in the post.

  2. Hi – you have not shown any link (*or code) in the above 0.96 OLED / ESP8266 PROJECT; where you say “……… Here’s the [[Arduino??]] code that you should upload to your ESP8266 ……..”????? can you please provide it. Regards, Ian

  3. Hi Rui – I am just starting projects using the oled display and this is the first one I landed on – I have your Arduino projects book already. I am trying to compile the code (have all the libraries installed) and am getting an error on the display statement

    // Initialize the OLED display using Wire library
    SSD1306  display(0x3c, D3, D5);

    It is saying that “D3 and D5 are not declared in this scope”

    Can you tell me what might be going on?

    Thanks Bob

    • Hi Bob.
      The D3 and D5 are only declared “automatically” when you’re using the ESP-12E (in the Arduino IDE tools > boards > ESP-12E).
      If you’re using another ESP or you have “ESP generic module” you’ll have to declare GPIOs.

      I hope that makes sense.
      Regards.

    • Hi Andrew.
      I don’t know why you can’t see the code.
      Try this link with the raw code: raw.githubusercontent.com/RuiSantosdotme/Random-Nerd-Tutorials/master/Projects/ESP8266_Oled_display.ino
      Regards,
      Sara

  4. Good day to you,

    just wanted to say a HUGE Thank-You for making this an open-source project for beginners like me, this has blown me away, excellent info and step by step easy to follow instructions, really grateful there are people like you doing this much for our Electronics Communities !

    Once more, thanks ever so much for everything, keep up the inspiring work on these tutorials !!

    kindest regards,

    Anil

  5. Hi, I am trying to light up the OLED display, and I cannot.
    The same code works when I connect it to Arduino UNO – but does not when connected to ESP8266 !
    The only difference is the OLED is powered by 5v using the Arduino Uno, whereas in the ESP8266 it feeds 3.3v and hence maybe I cannot light up/activate the OLED display.
    The default address is 0x3C and I have set the RESET pin to -1.
    In fact the same identical was uploaded to Arduino Uno and it works.

    The specs on the OLED says it works with both 5 and 3.3v. But I cannot work with 3.3V !
    Other than that – it’s a great article and I have subscribed to your news letter and everyday you invent something new or other and I get your subscription email.
    Good Luck to you both in helping the community thru your blogs.

    • Hi Sashi.
      That problem with the OLED can be a power issue.
      Can you try powering the OLED with 5V?
      Also, you might need to use an external power supply because the USB port might not feed enough current.
      If you have an Arduino, as a test, you can try powering the OLED through the Arduino 5V pin while the OLED is connected to the ESP8266. If that works, you know it is certainly a power issue.
      Also, double-check that you are using the right pins to wire the OLED to the ESP8266:
      SCL GPIO 5 (D1)
      SDA GPIO 4 (D2)
      I hope this helps.
      Thank you so much for supporting our work.
      Regards,
      Sara

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