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PSYC4039 Exam Ch. 13-16
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Gravity
Psyc Stats
Terms in this set (60)
Eta^2 reflects the proportion of variance in the dependent variable associated with the _____ after variability due to _____ has been removed.
Select one:
a. individual differences; error
b. individual differences; independent variable
c. independent variable; individual differences
d. independent variable; error
c. independent variable; individual differences
For sample sizes larger than _____, the Type I error rate remains near the specified alpha level even in the face of marked _____.
Select one:
a. 10; non-normality
b. 30; sphericity
c. 30; non-normality
d. 100; sphericity
c. 30; non-normality
If the assumption of sphericity is not met, then the _____ procedure is used to evaluate the nature of the relationship.
Select one:
a. Mauchly
b. Huynh-Feldt
c. modified Bonferroni
d. Tukey HS
c. modified Bonferroni
If the assumption of sphericity is satisfied, then the nature of the relationship following a statistically significant one-way repeated measures analysis of variance can be addressed with the _____ test.
Select one:
a. Huynh-Feldt
b. Tukey HSD
c. modified Bonferroni
d. Mauchly
b. Tukey HSD
If the null hypothesis is rejected, the _____ procedure will allow us to examine the nature of the relationship.
Select one:
a. alpha
b. F test
c. HSD
d. q value
c. HSD
If the observed value of F is _____ than the critical value of F, then the null hypothesis is rejected and we can conclude that _____ an influence of the independent variable.
Select one:
a. greater; there is not
b. greater; there is
c. less; there is
d. less; there is not
b. greater; there is
Many statisticians recommend that modifications be made to the _____ unless one is confident that sphericity holds.
Select one:
a. sum of squares IV
b. traditional F test
c. Greenhouse-Geisser epsilon
d. Huynh-Feldt epsilon
b. traditional F test
Modification of the _____ is necessary if the assumption of sphericity is violated.
Select one:
a. treatments
b. sample size
c. sums of squares
d. degrees of freedom
d. degrees of freedom
The null hypothesis of a one-way repeated ANOVA is _____.
Select one:
a. some of the population means are not equal
b. some of the population means are equal
c. all the population means are equal
d. all the population means are not equal
c. all the population means are equal
The one-way repeated measures analysis of variance is typically used to analyze the relationship between two variables when:
Select one:
a. the independent variable has three or more levels
b. the independent variable is within-subjects in nature
c. the dependent variable is quantitative in nature and is measured on a level that at least approximates interval characteristics
d. all of these
d. all of these
The variability in the dependent variable of a one-way repeated ANOVA can be partitioned into _____ components.
Select one:
a. 3
b. 4
c. none of these
d. 2
a. 3
The _____ assumption states that the variance of the population difference scores for any two conditions is the same as the variance of the population difference scores for any other two conditions.
Select one:
a. sphericity
b. normal differences
c. homogeneity of differences
d. heteroscedasticity
a. sphericity
To the extent that the dependent variable is influenced by individual background, the population eta-squared will be _____ in the within-subjects case than in the between-subjects case.
Select one:
a. smaller
b. more interpretable
c. less interpretable
d. greater
d. greater
Violations of the assumption of _____ lead to increased _____ error.
Select one:
a. normality; Type II
b. normality; Type I
c. sphericity; Type II
d. sphericity; Type I
d. sphericity; Type I
When comparing a between-subjects design with a repeated design, the between-subjects design will ____ powerful than the repeated design.
Select one:
a. always be more
b. usually be more
c. usually be less
d. always be less
c. usually be less
A relationship might exist in a sample even though it does not exist in the population, because of:
Select one:
a. incorrect inference
b. idiosyncratic variance
c. sampling error
d. confounding variables
c. sampling error
An important characteristic of regression is that _____ can be extended to individuals who were not included in the original data set.
Select one:
a. missing data
b. predictions
c. sample means
d. correlated errors
b. predictions
Another index of the strength of the effect that one variable has on another is the:
Select one:
a. slope
b. none of these
c. error score
d. intercept
a. slope
If you compute a statistically significant negative r between two variables (X and Y), this tells you that _____.
Select one:
a. you have made a computational error
b. X and Y are unrelated to each other in the population
c. higher scores on X are associated with higher scores on Y
d. higher scores on X are associated with lower scores on Y
c. higher scores on X are associated with higher scores on Y
If you compute a statistically significant positive r between two variables (X and Y), this tells you that _____.
Select one:
a. higher scores on X are associated with lower scores on Y
b. you have made a computational error
c. higher scores on X are associated with higher scores on Y
d. X and Y are unrelated to each other in the population
c. higher scores on X are associated with higher scores on Y
The ability to make a causal inference between two variables is a function of the ______.
Select one:
a. level of measurement of the variables
b. statistical technique used to analyze the data
c. precision of measurement of the DV
d. research design
d. research design
The nature of the relationship between two correlated variables is determined through examination of the _____ of the correlation coefficient observed in the _____.
Select one:
a. absolute value; population
b. squared value; sample
c. strength; population
d. sign; sample
d. sign; sample
The Pearson correlation is typically used to analyze the relationship between two variables when:
Select one:
a. the two variables have been measured on different individuals
b. both variables are qualitative in nature
c. none of these
d. the observations on each variable are within-subjects in natured.
c. none of these
The traditional null hypothesis tested using the Pearson correlation is _____.
Select one:
a. the correlation in the population does not equal 0
b. the correlation in the population is greater than 0
c. the correlation in the population equals 1
d. the correlation in the population equals 0
d. the correlation in the population equals 0
The use of the slope as an index of effect size only makes sense when the correlation between Y and X is:
Select one:
a. relatively low
b. +1.00 or -1.00
c. 0
d. relatively high
d. relatively high
What does the estimated standard error of the estimate represent?
Select one:
a. Average error when using the regression equation to predict Y from X
b. The degree to which outliers are influencing your correlation coefficient
c. The degree to which restricted range has influenced your prediction of Y from X
d. The standard deviation of the cross products for X and Y
a. Average error when using the regression equation to predict Y from X
When a relationship is found using the Pearson correlation technique on sample data, this does not mean there is a non-zero correlation in the population, because of _____.
Select one:
a. sample size
b. none of these, since it will always exist in the population if it is present in the sample
c. restriction of range
d. sampling error
d. sampling error
When testing the significance of a correlation, we use the alpha level and the degrees of freedom value equal to ______.
Select one:
a. N
b. n
c. N-2
d. N-1
c. N-2
Which of the following is formally known as the coefficient of determination?
Select one:
a. rho
b. eta^2
c. r^2
d. r
c. r^2
Which of the following values represents the strongest correlation between variables?
Select one:
a. +.75
b. 0
c. -.80
d. -.15
c. -.80
A chi-square test may be used to analyze the relationship between two variables when ______.
Select one:
a. all of these
b. the two variables have been measured on the same subjects
c. both variables are qualitative in nature
d. the observations on each variable are between-subjects in nature
a. all of these
As long as the _____ assumption is met, observed frequencies can be as low as _____.
Select one:
a. observed frequency; 0
b. homogeneity of variance; 10
c. normality; 1.0
d. expected frequency; 0
d. expected frequency; 0
As the degrees of freedom increase, the shape of the sampling distribution of the chi-square statistic will become more _____.
Select one:
a. negatively skewed
b. peaked in shape
c. normal in shape
d. positively skewed
c. normal in shape
In a chi-square test, the null hypothesis states that ______.
Select one:
a. the two variables of interest are unrelated in the population
b. the sum of the row and column frequencies equal the total frequency
c. the two variables of interest are related in the population
d. the column frequencies equal the row frequencies
a. the two variables of interest are unrelated in the population
One of the assumptions of the chi-square test is that the expected frequencies be no lower than approximately 5. Which of the following is a strategy to ensure that this assumption is met?
Select one:
a. conduct a goodness-of-fit test
b. increase sample size
c. add a third group to at least one of the variables
d. ensure that eta-squared is at least .15.
b. increase sample size
The chi-square test is a nonparametric test designed to analyze relationships between variables using what type of information?
Select one:
a. mean
b. mode
c. standard deviation
d. frequencies
d. frequencies
The chi-square test is typically used to analyze the relationship between two variables when:
Select one:
a. the observations on each variable are within-subjects in nature
b. both variables are quantitative in nature and are measured on a level that at least approximates interval characteristics
c. none of these
d. there is an extremely small sample size
c. none of these
The entries within the cells of a contingency table represent the number of individuals in the sample who are characterized by the corresponding levels of the _____ and are referred to as _____.
Select one:
a. marginal frequencies; observed frequencies
b. variables; expected frequencies
c. contingency table; unexpected frequencies
d. variables; observed frequencies
d. variables; observed frequencies
The interpretation of the obtained value for the fourfold point correlation coefficient/Cramer's statistic is similar to _____.
Select one:
a. omega-squared
b. a Pearson correlation coefficient
c. eta-squared
d. Tukey HSD
b. a Pearson correlation coefficient
The power of the chi-square test is further reduced when quantitative variables are collapsed into categories because _____ by placing individuals with different scores into the same group.
Select one:
a. considerable information is likely to be lost
b. all of these
c. more Type I errors are likely to be made
d. sampling difficulties may arise
a. considerable information is likely to be lost
The sum of the frequencies in the corresponding row or column are referred to as:
Select one:
a. expected frequencies
b. marginal frequencies
c. total frequencies
d. observed frequencies
b. marginal frequencies
When the marginal frequencies for both variables under study are random, the chi-square test of _____ is used, and when the marginal frequencies are random for one variable and fixed for the other, the chi-square test of _____ is used.
Select one:
a. homogeneity; independence
b. independence; homogeneity
c. heterogeneity; dependence
d. independence; heterogeneity
b. independence; homogeneity
Which level of measurement is appropriate for the independent and dependent variables when using a chi-square analysis?
Select one:
a. interval
b. nominal
c. ordinal
d. ratio
b. nominal
Which of the following conditions would necessitate choosing a test other than chi-square test of independence?
Select one:
a. the observations on each variable are between subjects in nature.
b. the independent variable is qualitative.
c. the dependent variable is qualitative.
d. observations are within subjects.
d. observations are within subjects
Which of the following indices measure the strength of the relationship between two variables in a contingency table when both variables have three levels?
Select one:
a. the fourfold point correlation coefficient
b. Pearson correlation
c. Cramer's statistic
d. the phi coefficient
c. Cramer's statistic
A nonparametric statistical test will typically be used when data are measured at the _____ or _____ level.
Select one:
a. nominal; ordinal
b. interval; ratio
c. nominal; interval
d. ordinal; ratio
a. nominal; ordinal
Extreme values might prove to be problematic for parametric analyses, but they pose no particular problem for many nonparametric analyses. Because of this property, nonparametric tests are often said to be:
Select one:
a. corrected
b. outlier resistant
c. robust
d. outlier sensitive
b. outlier resistant
Rather than comparing groups in terms of _____, the nonparametric procedures compare groups in terms of _____ or other features of a distribution.
Select one:
a. medians; means
b. means; variances
c. means; medians
d. modes; means
c. means; medians
Similar to the analysis of a Pearson correlation, the nature of the relationship when using a Spearman correlation is indicated by the sign of the correlation coefficient.
Select one:
a. true
b. false
a. true
Statistical tests that require assumptions about the distribution of scores in the populations from which the samples are selected are called _____ statistical tests.
Select one:
a. robust
b. nonparametric
c. parametric
d. distributional
c. parametric
The first step of doing a rank tests is to rank scores on the dependent variable. This process changes the level of measurement from approximately_____ to _____.
Select one:
a. interval; ordinal
b. nominal; ordinal
c. ordinal; nominal
d. interval; ratio
a. interval; ordinal
The Friedman analysis of variance by ranks is the nonparametric counterpart of the:
Select one:
a. one-way between-subjects analysis of variance
b. one-way repeated measures analysis of variance
c. correlated groups t test
d. independent groups t test
b. one-way repeated measures analysis of variance
The Kruskal-Wallis test is a nonparametric alternative to which parametric test?
Select one:
a. one-way between-subjects analysis of variance
b. Pearson correlation
c. independent groups t test
d. one-way repeated measures analysis of variance
e. correlated groups t test
a. one-way between-subjects analysis of variance
The Mann-Whitney U test is a nonparametric alternative to which parametric test?
Select one:
a. one-way between-subjects analysis of variance
b. one-way repeated measures analysis of variance
c. Pearson correlation
d. independent groups t test
e. correlated groups t test
d. independent groups t test
The nature of the relationship between the two variables for the Wilcoxon signed-rank test is addressed by inspection of the:
Select one:
a. group means
b. rank sums
c. mean ranks
d. sum of squared ranks
b. rank sums
The Spearman rank-order correlation is a nonparametric alternative to which parametric test?
Select one:
a. one-way between-subjects analysis of variance
b. correlated groups t test
c. one-way repeated measures analysis of variance
d. Pearson correlation
e. independent groups t test
d. Pearson correlation
The strength of the relationship following a statistically significant _____ can be analyzed using epsilon squared.
Select one:
a. Mann-Whitney U test
b. Kruskal-Wallis test
c. Wilcoxon signed-rank test
d. Wilcoxon rank sum test
e. Spearman rank-order correlation
b. Kruskal-Wallis test
The strength of the relationship following a statistically significant ______ can be analyzed using the concordance coefficient.
Select one:
a. Mann-Whitney U test
b. Friedman analysis of variance by rank
c. Kruskal-Wallis test
d. Wilcoxon signed-rank test
e. Spearman rank-order correlation
b. Friedman analysis of variance by rank
The Wilcoxon rank sum test and the Mann-Whitney U test are the nonparametric counterparts of the:
Select one:
a. correlated groups t test
b. one-sample z test
c. independent groups t test
d. none of these
c. independent groups t test
The Wilcoxon signed-rank test is typically used to analyze the relationship between two variables when:
Select one:
a. the independent variable is within-subjects in nature
b. the independent variable has two and only two levels
c. scores on the dependent variable are in the form of ranked differences
d. all of these
d. all of these
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